Posted by: dried| Dried crab shells prices | Dried shrimp shell suppliers | | July 17, 2011

Chitin and Chitosan from Shrimp Waste

FACTORY freezing shrimp (cold storage), processed shrimp for export in the form of frozen headless shrimp or peeled. Waste from processing of shrimp is mostly hard skin (shell) about 50-60% are often discarded or used only as animal feed mixture. If waste is allowed, it will cause environmental pollution and endanger human health. Waste because it increases the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

Waste is a potential source of chitin and chitosan production, namely biopolymers which are commercially potential in various fields and industries. Chitin is a basic ingredient in the fields of biochemistry, enzimologi, medicine, agriculture, food nutrition, microbiology, agriculture, industrial membrane (film), textiles, cosmetics and so forth.
Chemically chitin is a polymer (1-4)-2-asetamido-2-deoxy-BD-glucosamine that can be digested by mammals, while chitosan is that chitin asetilnya group removed using concentrated bases so that this material is a polymer of D-glucosamine. The difference between the two based on its nitrogen content. When nitrogen is less than 7%, the polymer called chitin, and if the total nitrogen content of more than 7% then it is called chitosan.

Chitin-making process carried out by drying, size reduction, washing, deproteinisasi with NaOH. Hasilya can be directly processed into chitosan through deasetilisasi process, washing, drying, and penepungan until the chitosan powder. Chitin and Chitosan can be applied in the field of industrial and medical fields.

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Posted by: dried| Dried crab shells prices | Dried shrimp shell suppliers | | July 17, 2011

Preparation of Chitosan for cleaning Water from Shrimp Shells

Shrimp is a member of the phylum Arthropoda, sub-phylum Mandibulata and belong to the class Crustacea. The entire body is made up of sections that covered by the framework outer or exoskeleton of chitin and substance horn or reinforced by calcium carbonate limestone material. In shrimp waste, contained a biopolymer called chitin (poly N-Acetyl Glucosamine). Deacetylation of chitin will produce a more potent compounds, namely chitosan or poly [β-(1-4)-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose] or D glukosamina, with a certain degree of deacetylation. Chitosan lot of utilization, as in the fields of pharmaceuticals, health, agriculture and industry. Chitosan can also be used as coagulants and flocculants in water treatment (Mu’minah, 2008)

The process of isolation of chitin from shrimp shells can be broadly divided into two, demineralization (mineral removal) and deproteinasi (protein removal). If chitin is processed further using a concentrated alkaline solution it will produce a new product that is chitosan. Chemically, chitin and chitosan can be considered a derivative of cellulose with the hydroxyl group at C-2 atom is replaced by cellulose asetamida and free amine groups. If the hydroxy group at C-2 atom is replaced by cellulose asetamida group, the compound formed is chitin. But if the hydroxy group at atom C-2 cellulose is replaced by the free amine compound formed is chitosan (Mia, 2007).

Chitosan has amine group of the N element is very reactive and alkaline. The principle of chitosan coagulation is an ion exchange where the amine salt formed by reaction of amines with acid to exchange protons owned by electron metal contaminants that are owned by the nitrogen (N). Chitosan is one example of the polyelectrolytes. Polyelectrolytes is part of a special polymer that can be ionized and have the ability to make the occurrence of flocculation in a liquid medium (Agus, et al, undated). Utilization of chitosan in water pengolaha caused this compound acts as a chelating compound for pemisahkan heavy metals from the solution (Mu’minah, 2008).

Below is Making way Chitosan (Mu’minah, 2008):
• Shrimp Waste Samples
Dried shrimp waste samples consisting of the skin of the body in the puree.
• Isolation of Chitin from Shrimp Waste
• Disappearance Protein
At this stage the protein from shrimp waste is separated by introducing 50 g of shrimp waste powder into 500 mL of NaOH 3.5% w / v, and heated at 650 C for 2 hours, stirring constantly using a magnetic stirrer. Subsequently the mixture is cooled and filtered with a filter cloth. The residue is filtered, washed with water until neutral and then rinsed with aquades. Neutral residue which is dried in an oven crude chitin with a temperature of 650 C for 24 hours and weighed.
• Removal of Mineral
Shrimp waste has been eliminated protein is inserted into a solution of 1 M HCl at room temperature with a ratio of 1:15 w / v for 1 hour. Crude chitin incorporated into the solution slowly. Stirring process conducted over the magnetic stirrer. The reaction was filtered using a filter cloth. The filtered residue was washed with water until neutral and then rinsed with aqua dm. Neutral residue, which is coarse chitin, dried in an oven with a temperature of 650 C for 24 hours and weighed.
• Preparation of Chitosan
Chitin isolation results put into a beaker containing a solution of NaOH 50% w / v for 4 hours at temperatures of 1000 C with a ratio of 1:10 w / v. The mixture is stirred using a magnetic stirrer, temperature constant cultivated. The results of chitin extract is filtered using a filter cloth. Residue which is chitosan, washed with water until neutral and rinsed using aquades. Chitosan was dried in an oven with a temperature of 650 C for 24 hours.


1. Agus Widodo, Mardianh, dan Andy Prasetyo. Potensi Kitosan dari Udang sebagai Koagulan Logam Berat Limbah Cair Industri Tekstil. Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November (ITS) Surabaya.

2. Mu’minah. Aplikasi Kitosan sebagai Koagulan untuk Penjernihan Air Keruh. Tesis Program Studi Kimia ITB 2008.

3. Mia Ledyastuti. Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Membran Berbasis Kitosan dalam Aplikasi Fuel Cell. Tesis Program Studi Kimia ITB 2007.

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Posted by: dried| Dried crab shells prices | Dried shrimp shell suppliers | | July 17, 2011

Chitin and Chitosan Processing Technology

World of science and technology in recent vying to develop biopolymer chitin, chitosan and its derivatives as a commercial product for a wide range of uses. Even many who see it as a biomaterial future role in industrial competitiveness. Prices of these materials in the market continues to rise in the thousands of dollars per ton.

Chitin is a long chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, found in wide distribution in nature, among them prominent in the skin / shell and the head of arthropods such as crustaceans (shrimp, crab, etc.) and insects, the mollusks, half sepalopoda like cuttlefish, octopus and so on .

Chitin in these materials are usually bound by protein and mineral compounds, so as to obtain necessary process of demineralization and deproteinasi. In terms of structure, chitin can be compared as cellulosic polysaccharides but contains nitrogen, while functions such as keratin. Chitin can only be obtained naturally because they can not disintetis.
Chitosan is a derivative of chitin after deacetylation process, namely the disposal of the element asetilnya. Chitosan derivatives are developed for various purposes of use.

Usability and chitin are already being developed, among others, in agriculture as fertilizer, strengthens the defense mechanisms of plants, and biocontrol. On to the food and pharmaceutical industries as filler (thicken) and stabilizers. Also as a binder in the paint, fabrics and adhesives, paper reinforcement and so on. In medicine is used as a thread operation, asthma etc. healer.
Chitosan in agriculture for seed treatment, as growth boosters, biopesticides, biocontrol, fertilizer, plants and roots to strengthen defenses against diseases and pests, reduce stress, improve yield and quality, preserving cut flowers, etc.. Useful in screening and filtering water from milk casein. Polyurethane coatings have been developed (for cars, etc.) which, when scratched can recover itself in no time.
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Posted by: dried| Dried crab shells prices | Dried shrimp shell suppliers | | July 17, 2011

Chitin is found in fungi and in what

Chitin is a polymer of the exoskeleton which is a structural unit of poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine that is bound by the bond-β 1-4 glycosidic a linear polymer consisting of 2000-3000 units. Name of chitin (chitin) derived from the Greek meaning ‘cloak’ or ‘envelope’. Chitin is formed from long-chain molecules with large molecular weight. Structurally, chitin resembles cellulose, except asetamida group that replaces the C-2 hydroxyl groups on cellulose.

The main properties of chitin is characterized by its nature very difficult to dissolve in water and some organic solvents, low chemical reactivity and extremely hydrophobic. Since all three properties are relatively less use of chitin than chitosan and its derivatives. Chitin is the main application as a metal chelating compound in the installation of clean or waste water treatment, cosmetics as a fungicide and fungistatik wound healing.

Chitin up more than half of the total organic material in the material (structure) berkitin. Higher concentrations reach 85% found in arthropods, shells (exoskeletons) of crabs, shrimp, and lobster has long been known as a source of raw material for chitin production. Arthropods dry shell containing an average of 20% -50% chitin. Although known for a number of sources of chitin, only the skin of crustaceans, especially shrimp and crab / small crab that has been exploited commercially. The amount of chitin in the shells is determined by the species, freshness shells, and the shells are used. Generally the shell containing calcium salt content is high then low kitinnya. Shells of crabs or parts that contain lots of small crab chitin is a foot, celiped, and the tip of claw (Communications & Consultation Executive Council Government of Newfoundland and Labrador 2001).

In animals, chitin is usually bind to proteins, for materials whose structure is hard protein tersamak by phenolic derivative compounds. In the plant world khitin limited presence in fungi and green algae, all fungi with a few exceptions khitin contained within the walls of his cell.
To produce chitin and its derivatives, many things that can influence its success include (i) the type of raw materials, (ii) chitin extraction process (deproteinasi and demineralization) and (iii)
extraction process of chitosan (deacetylation). Biopolymer chitin and its derivatives are widely found in nature, which can be isolated with a fairly simple chemical process, besides it can also be done enzymatically.

 Isolation of chitin from shrimp shells / crabs are usually done in three stages, namely:
First, the stage of removal of minerals (demineralization). This stage can be done by adding a solution of hydrochloric acid. The aim is to remove minerals that exist in the shells, especially calcium. Therefore, there are several sources who call this stage by the stage name of decalcification. Second, the removal phase proteins (deproteinasi). This stage aims to remove the protein. Usually done by adding a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), while heated at temperatures not too high.Third, the stage of decoloration. This stage can be done or not, depending on needs. Decoloration can use the oxidizing solution, such as oxalic acid, chlorine or KMnO4. For certain purposes, the removal of color simply by   sing alcohol or acetone. After going through the third stage, we will obtain chitin. Typically, from 1 kg of shrimp shell, will be obtained as much as 200-250 grams of chitin. If you want to get chitosan, chitin we’ve gained we reaksikan with NaOH solution. The reaction carried out at a temperature of 60 oC -1000.

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Posted by: dried| Dried crab shells prices | Dried shrimp shell suppliers | | November 1, 2014

Chitin and Chitosan can be applied in the field of industrial and medical fields.

  1. Industri Textiles. Woven fibers can be made from chitin by making a suspension of chitin in formic acid, acetic acid and then added triklor and immediately frozen at 20 degrees C for 24 hours. If the solution is spun and inserted in the ethyl acetate will be formed of fiber weaving a potential for the textile industry. In batik, paste chitosan can replace”night”(wax) as a medium of batik.
  2.  Field Photography. If chitin is dissolved in a solution of dimethylacetamide LICI, then from this solution can be made the film for various uses. In the film industry for photography, the addition of copper chitosan can improve the quality of the film which is to improve fotosensitivitasnya.
  3. Medicine / Health. Chitin and its derivatives (carboxymethyl chitin, chitin and ethyl hydroxyethyl chitin) can be used as a base for the manufacture of yarn operations. This operation has the advantage of yarn can be broken down and absorbed in body tissues, not toxic, can be sterilized and can be stored longer.
    Chitin and chitosan can be used as a promoter of healing of burns, is better than that made of cartilage. In addition, as materials for glucosamine salts which have many benefits in the field of medicine. For example to cure influenza, enteritis and bone pain.
    Acylated glucosamine is an antitumor material, whereas glucosamine itself is toxic to tumor cells so it can lower blood cholesterol levels and liver cholesterol. Because chitin can not be digested in digestion, so it serves as a useful dietary fiber remains smooth disposal of digestion.
  4. Fungicide Industry. Chitosan has antimikrobia properties against fungi more strongly than Chitin. If Chitosan is added to the soil, it will stimulate the growth of microbes microbes that can break down the fungus. In addition Chitosan can also be sprayed directly on plants. For example 0.4% chitosan solution if sprayed on tomato plants can eliminate tobacco mosaic virus.
  5. Cosmetics Industry. Has now developed a new product dry shampoos that contain chitin suspended in alcohol. Including the manufacture of liquid lotions and shampoos that contain 0.5 to 6.0% chitosan salt. This shampoo has the advantage to increase the strength and glossy hair, because of the interaction between the polymer with the hair protein.
  6. Food Processing Industry. Due to the nature of chitin and chitosan can bind water and fat, then both can be used as a medium of food coloring. Microcrystalline chitin when added to the dough will be able to increase the development of the volume of bread produced. In addition, as a thickener and emulsion-forming better than the microcrystalline cellulose. At high heating will produce chitin as a potential agent pyrazine flavor enhancer.
    Because it is able to react with acids such as polyphenols, the Chitosan is suitable to lower acid levels in fruits, vegetables and coffee extract. Even last known to be a purification of apple juice is better than the use of bentonite and gelatin. Chitin and Chitosan is not toxic so it is not harmful to human health..
  7. Waste Handling. Due to the nature polikationiknya, Chitosan can be used as a coagulant agents in the handling of waste, especially waste protein that can then be used as animal feed. In the handling of liquid wastes, Chitosan as a chelating agent that can absorb toxic metals such as mercury, lead, copper, and uranium in waters pluranium and ntuk binding dyes in textile wastewater. (Henny Krissetiana H-35)

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